"Racism is so American that when you protest it people think you are protesting America."
The quote is apt and relevant in the present context, too, even after the lapse of 150 years of the 13th Amendment that abolished slavery in the United States.
As per the new Pew Research Centre survey, the majority of the US adults believe that slavery legacy is continuing to impact American society whereby black people are facing racial inequality and skepticism.
More than 4 in 10 people believe that Americans haven't yet made enough progress toward racial equality, and black people still need to have equal rights as whites.
WHAT DOES RACISM MEAN IN THE USA?
Racism in the United States is the practice of having a negative attitude and views towards the black race or ethnicity by white Americans. For ages, white Americans have enjoyed legal rights and social privileges sanctioned over other members of various minorities or ethnic groups living in the nation. The custom is still alive in the US.
White Americans have been enjoying privileges in the spheres like education, land acquisition, citizenship, voting rights, immigration, criminal procedure and much more.
HISTORY OF RACISM IN AMERICA
Historians have traced the beginning of subjugation of the first African woman in Virginia way back in 1619 in Jamestown.
Another belief suggests that around 300 black people were killed, and 40 square blocks of then called Black Wall Street was destroyed by the fire, which was the racial massacre in America.
The black-white economic divide is as wide as it was in 1968, the gap becoming even more pronounced amongst less-educated Americans. White Americans are ten times wealthier than black families, with the heads being educated for the same educational level for both families.
The United Nations and the U.S. Human Rights Network has rightly viewed the racial discrimination in the country, confirming that "Discrimination in the United States permeates all aspects of life and extend to all communities of color."
Racism and racial discrimination in the US have been manifested in the following ways: -
Native American reservations and boarding schools
Racist immigration and neutralization laws
Criminal justice systems
Housing, media and politics differences
Lack of adequate Healthcare amenities
PRESENCE OF SYSTEMATIC RACISM WITHOUT RACIST IN AMERICA AS DESCRIBED BY SOCIOLOGIST EDUARDO BONILLA- SILVA
Racism in America is deeply embedded in the social institution, and many feel they are being personally attacked when racism is criticized. They feel it because they have inherited unearned assets associated with skin colour/whiteness.
The ethnic inequities present in today's American society result from structural racism: this includes current policies, practices, and norms that establish and maintain white supremacy.
Black people in America are less likely to be considered middle class than whites because their socioeconomic class is not comparable to white Americans. White people have more affordability owing to their skin tone, making them realize the premium of whiteness. The privileges extend beyond economic benefits to the white population's cultural and social capital (better educational facilities, income generation sources, and occupational prestige).
RACIALIZED CUTS AND HURDLES HAVE A CUMULATIVE EFFECT ON THE HEALTH OF BLACKS IN AMERICA
Systematic racism in the social institutions and social interactions have been making a cumulative effect on the health of blacks in America.
As per the report of sociologists Pam Jackson and Jason Cumming, "The middle-class blacks have even worse health profile then working-class whites".
Blacks have to face racialized trauma in predominantly white environments, including workplaces and neighbourhood settings.
Systematically blacks are facing racism in these fields like: -
Attending schools and universities with less funding
Procuring lesser better job because of their black-sounding name
Obtaining a home loan (harder for black even if they have the same credit score as that of white)
Pregnancy complication and maternal mortality
Difficulty in a home appraisal for equitable value
The different criminal justice system
Systemic Racial discrimination is so deeply embedded in American society that researched documents state that white people with criminal records are more likely to be called back for a job than Black people with no criminal record.
HOW GLOOMY ARE BLACK AMERICANS IN THEIR NATION?
Blacks are particularly gloomy and pessimistic about the country's racial progress. As per the report, eight in 10 black adults (approximately 59% of the surveyed) believes that the slavery legacy affects the position of black Americans even today greatly.
About 8 in 10 (78%) blacks believe that the country still needs to make the anticipated progress in giving black people equal rights with whites. And almost half of the people surveyed are not optimistic about the eventual eradication of racial discrimination from today's society.
STATISTICS ABOUT THE BLACK FAMILIES’ HOMEOWNERSHIP, BUSINESS, HOME APPRAISALS, BLACK UNEMPLOYMENT
In the first quarter of 2020, 44% of black families owned their homes compared to 73.7% white families.
Only 1% of the venture capital is invested with the company was founded by black entrepreneurs. Black entrepreneurs complaining about racial discrimination fear career death sentences.
In predominantly African-American neighborhoods, the home values are least likely to recover from the great recession. Across the United States, blacks are unlikely to own homes, and those who own may slip underwater during the housing bust.
The unemployment rate of black Americans is consistently twice both the white unemployment rate and the country's overall unemployment rate. However, the Federal Reserve can make the job market more welcoming for black workers.
Black Americans die younger than white Americans, which calls for the transformation of the healthcare system for the poor health of black Americans who are still facing deep-rooted racism. Additionally, black and Latino Americans are 2 to 3 times uninsured than their white American counterparts.
Owing to the coronavirus spread, disinvestment and inadequate healthcare facilities for the minority communities across the U.S. have been uncovered, emphasizing the desperate need to take collective measures to fight back the impact of coronavirus disease.
American white police disproportionately kill black Americans. 13% of the US population comprises black, but more than a quarter of police shot victims are blacks.
CHANGING FACE OF AMERICAN POLITICS FOR BLACKS
The first black president, Obama, proved that extraordinarily talented black Americans could lead and excel in every sphere of American life.
An unprecedented number of black women participated in Congress in the 2020 cycle. Black women make about 1/5 of the US population, but only a small share of the women holds a position in majorly elected offices.
Out of three of the four black adults are enthusiastic to cast their vote in November, whereby their selection for the candidate for president will be driven by racism and police conduct issues.
As per Jonathan Metzl, "To be white in America.... means to have to block the advances of other groups."
Economic or racial discrimination is viewed as a major problem in America by the black and white democratic. However, anti-racism actions are catching up pace in America. Yet, the road is too long to be covered up in a matter of days or a month. It might take decades more to see racial discrimination free America emerging on the world map.
The article above is the tip of the ice berg when it comes to hate crime, racism, and discrimination followed in the “land of opportunity.”
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